【※ 当記事は2020年7月2日時点の情報です】






Linux Kernel 3.14


【Linux】ビルドツールのインストール、make menuconfig/make allで準備したlinux-3.14.79を前提に説明します。



$ cd /usr/src/linux-3.14.79
$ cp .config .config_backup



$ cd /usr/src/linux-3.14.79
$ make menuconfig



Arrow keys navigate the menu.

<Enter> selects submenus —> (or empty submenus —-).

Highlighted letters are hotkeys.

<Y> includes,
<N> excludes,
<M> modularizes features.
<Esc><Esc> to exit,
<?> for Help,
</> for Search.  これ結構便利

[*] built-in [ ]
<M> module
< > module capable

例えば、64-bit kernelが選択された状態で ? を入力すると、コンフィギュレーションの詳細情報が見れます。




$ cd /usr/src/linux-3.14.79
$ make menuconfig

先頭の[*] 64-bit kernelを選択した状態でスペースを押すと…。

[ ] 64-bit kernelという具合に選択が解除されます。

次に< > Intel System On Chip IOSF Sideband supportを選択した状態でスペースを1回押すと…。

<M> Intel System On Chip IOSF Sideband supportという具合にローダブルモジュールになります。もう1回スペースを押すと…。

<*> Intel System On Chip IOSF Sideband supportになります。



コンソールに戻ります(make menuconfigから抜けます)。


$ diff .config .config_backup
< # CONFIG_64BIT is not set
< CONFIG_X86_32=y

> CONFIG_X86_64=y
< CONFIG_ARCH_DEFCONFIG=”arch/x86/configs/i386_defconfig”

> CONFIG_OUTPUT_FORMAT=”elf64-x86-64″
> CONFIG_ARCH_DEFCONFIG=”arch/x86/configs/x86_64_defconfig”
< # CONFIG_ZONE_DMA32 is not set
< # CONFIG_AUDIT_ARCH is not set



make installなどmakeのオプションをもっと調べたいと考え、カーネルソースコードに含まれるMakefileを開いてみました。1490行もあり全部を真剣に見るのはツライので、HELPを表示してみました。こまったらコレを見ます。

$ make help
Cleaning targets:
clean – Remove most generated files but keep the config and
enough build support to build external modules
mrproper – Remove all generated files + config + various backup files
distclean – mrproper + remove editor backup and patch files

Configuration targets:
config – Update current config utilising a line-oriented program
nconfig – Update current config utilising a ncurses menu based program
menuconfig – Update current config utilising a menu based program
xconfig – Update current config utilising a QT based front-end
gconfig – Update current config utilising a GTK based front-end
oldconfig – Update current config utilising a provided .config as base
localmodconfig – Update current config disabling modules not loaded
localyesconfig – Update current config converting local mods to core
silentoldconfig – Same as oldconfig, but quietly, additionally update deps
defconfig – New config with default from ARCH supplied defconfig
savedefconfig – Save current config as ./defconfig (minimal config)
allnoconfig – New config where all options are answered with no
allyesconfig – New config where all options are accepted with yes
allmodconfig – New config selecting modules when possible
alldefconfig – New config with all symbols set to default
randconfig – New config with random answer to all options
listnewconfig – List new options
olddefconfig – Same as silentoldconfig but sets new symbols to their default value

Other generic targets:
all – Build all targets marked with [*]
* vmlinux – Build the bare kernel
* modules – Build all modules
modules_install – Install all modules to INSTALL_MOD_PATH (default: /)
firmware_install- Install all firmware to INSTALL_FW_PATH
(default: $(INSTALL_MOD_PATH)/lib/firmware)
dir/ – Build all files in dir and below
dir/file.[oisS] – Build specified target only
dir/file.lst – Build specified mixed source/assembly target only
(requires a recent binutils and recent build (
dir/file.ko – Build module including final link
modules_prepare – Set up for building external modules
tags/TAGS – Generate tags file for editors
cscope – Generate cscope index
gtags – Generate GNU GLOBAL index
kernelrelease – Output the release version string
kernelversion – Output the version stored in Makefile
image_name – Output the image name
headers_install – Install sanitised kernel headers to INSTALL_HDR_PATH
(default: /usr/src/linux-3.14.79/usr)

Static analysers
checkstack – Generate a list of stack hogs
namespacecheck – Name space analysis on compiled kernel
versioncheck – Sanity check on version.h usage
includecheck – Check for duplicate included header files
export_report – List the usages of all exported symbols
headers_check – Sanity check on exported headers
headerdep – Detect inclusion cycles in headers
coccicheck – Check with Coccinelle.

Kernel packaging:
rpm-pkg – Build both source and binary RPM kernel packages
binrpm-pkg – Build only the binary kernel package
deb-pkg – Build the kernel as a deb package
tar-pkg – Build the kernel as an uncompressed tarball
targz-pkg – Build the kernel as a gzip compressed tarball
tarbz2-pkg – Build the kernel as a bzip2 compressed tarball
tarxz-pkg – Build the kernel as a xz compressed tarball
perf-tar-src-pkg – Build perf-3.14.79.tar source tarball
perf-targz-src-pkg – Build perf-3.14.79.tar.gz source tarball
perf-tarbz2-src-pkg – Build perf-3.14.79.tar.bz2 source tarball
perf-tarxz-src-pkg – Build perf-3.14.79.tar.xz source tarball

Documentation targets:
Linux kernel internal documentation in different formats:
htmldocs – HTML
pdfdocs – PDF
psdocs – Postscript
xmldocs – XML DocBook
mandocs – man pages
installmandocs – install man pages generated by mandocs
cleandocs – clean all generated DocBook files

Architecture specific targets (x86):
* bzImage – Compressed kernel image (arch/x86/boot/bzImage)
install – Install kernel using
(your) ~/bin/installkernel or
(distribution) /sbin/installkernel or
install to $(INSTALL_PATH) and run lilo
fdimage – Create 1.4MB boot floppy image (arch/x86/boot/fdimage)
fdimage144 – Create 1.4MB boot floppy image (arch/x86/boot/fdimage)
fdimage288 – Create 2.8MB boot floppy image (arch/x86/boot/fdimage)
isoimage – Create a boot CD-ROM image (arch/x86/boot/image.iso)
bzdisk/fdimage*/isoimage also accept:
FDARGS=”…” arguments for the booted kernel
FDINITRD=file initrd for the booted kernel
kvmconfig – Enable additional options for guest kernel support

i386_defconfig – Build for i386
x86_64_defconfig – Build for x86_64

make V=0|1 [targets] 0 => quiet build (default), 1 => verbose build
make V=2 [targets] 2 => give reason for rebuild of target
make O=dir [targets] Locate all output files in “dir”, including .config
make C=1 [targets] Check all c source with $CHECK (sparse by default)
make C=2 [targets] Force check of all c source with $CHECK
make RECORDMCOUNT_WARN=1 [targets] Warn about ignored mcount sections
make W=n [targets] Enable extra gcc checks, n=1,2,3 where
1: warnings which may be relevant and do not occur too often
2: warnings which occur quite often but may still be relevant
3: more obscure warnings, can most likely be ignored
Multiple levels can be combined with W=12 or W=123

Execute “make” or “make all” to build all targets marked with [*]
For further info see the ./README file



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